College athlete sex
Under Title IX there are no sport exclusions or exceptions. The basic philosophical underpinning of Title IX is that there cannot be an economic justification for discrimination. Who is responsible for enforcing Title IX? Rather, Title IX requires that the men and women's program receive the same level of service, facilities, supplies and etc. Individual participation opportunities number of student-athletes participating rather than number of sports in all men's and women's sports are counted in determining whether an institution meets Title IX participation standards. An institution must meet all of the following requirements in order to be in compliance with Title IX:
Who does Title IX apply to? Almost all private colleges and universities must abide by Title IX regulations because they receive federal funding through federal financial aid programs used by their students. Title IX requires that female and male student-athletes receive athletics scholarship dollars proportional to their participation; and Other benefits: No matter the law, certain strategies for gaining sexual compliance are sometimes allowed, and certain people can get away with sexual coercion and violence more often and more easily than others. Variations within the men and women's program are allowed, as long as the variations are justified. Is any sport excluded from Title IX? Certain people can get away with sexual coercion and violence more often and more easily than others. OCR examines the total program afforded to male student-athletes and the total program afforded to female student-athletes and whether each program meets the standards of equal treatment. I would also argue that many colleges and universities have a problem in the form of a perverse incentive: Does Title IX mandate that a decrease in opportunities for male athletes be made in order to provide an increase in opportunities for female athletes? On college campuses, hookup culture is part of why. A male football player needs protective equipment such as pads and a helmet, and a female soccer player needs shin guards. Until they change their minds about the role sex plays on campus, sexual misconduct will continue to be more regulated than prohibited. Title IX does not require identical athletics programs for males and females. The only provision that requires that the same dollars be spent proportional to participation is scholarships. OCR has the authority to develop policy on the regulations it enforces. As one of the female students who submitted to me a semester-long journal wrote: Evidence suggests that in some instances, administrations protect athletes named as perpetrators of sexual assault. These students carry the kind of privilege that MacKinnon described, and they often know it. There are three basic parts of Title IX as it applies to athletics: In other words, to make real inroads against sexual assault on campus, the status that both athletics and athletes enjoy should be reduced. It instigates it at the same time that it makes it invisible. Status and institutional protection In cases where victims do decide to report the assault, they sometimes discover that their institutions are as inclined to protect the perpetrator as their peers. Congress passed the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act, which requires all colleges and universities to report each year on athletics participation numbers, scholarships, program budgets and expenditures, and coaching salaries by gender. Does Title IX benefit only girls and women? To my mind, colleges need to institutionalize a different relationship between higher education and sports.
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