The virtual encyclopedia of sex
Pornography, including pornographic rape scenes, may serve another, intensely political end for women who read or see them: Rae Langton deploys the tools of speech act theory to elaborate further how pornography silences and subordinates women Langton Davis notes where current employment law in the U. Such a transformation of the impact of pornography can be brought about, if at all, only by a collective social movement. Computer-mediated interactions with digitally-simulated but fictional people can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from computer-mediated online interactions with real people.
Amy Allen critiques feminist debates about pornography for reducing the idea of power to the capacity to subordinate someone or resist subordination. Such treatment, at best, fails to recognize women as free and equal persons and, at worst, dehumanizes women and encourages their victimization. In this way, pornographic speech harms women by changing the world it appears to describe Langton Now that the Internet enables pornography to reach wider audiences, its impact may be greater than ever. But Nussbaum concludes that most conventional pornography, such as Playboy, fails to meet the Kantian moral standard, and depicts a thoroughgoing fungibility and commodification of sex partners and, in the process, severs sex from any deep connection with self-expression or emotion. The idea that men simply imitate what they see in pornography, or are conditioned to behave in certain ways through exposure to pornography, implies that men are not able to creatively and critically interpret pornographic materials. Brod applies Kantian, Hegelian, and Marxist moral concepts and writes, The female is primarily there as a sex object, not sexual subject. Virtual sex work, where providers are relatively anonymous and meet with customers only online, is relatively safe. The relationship between porn stars and consumers of their work are market relationships and should be held to the norms of those relationships, not the norms of friendships and romance Shrage Helen Longino was one of the first feminist philosophers to articulate a theory of how pornography harms women. When these criteria are met in a one-sided commercial or casual exchange, then the instrumental use is not immoral Marino There are companies which allow paying customers to actually watch people have live sex or masturbate and at the same time allow themselves to be watched as well. She writes, an essential ingredient in porn … is the depiction of a subjectivity or personality that willingly contracts its possibilities and pleasure to one—the acceptance and gratification of the male … The woman in porn abdicates her will, her sexual discrimination, her independence, but not to become a mute body for the man. The agency of Brown and Black women in prostitution has been avoided or overlooked and the perspectives arising from these experiences marginalized in dominant theoretical discourse on the global sex trade and prostitution. Adrienne Davis argues that the abolitionist movement has had more political victories because this side is more united in their aims. Nussbaum also questions seven common claims against prostitution: In , an influential human rights organization, Amnesty International, approved a resolution calling upon countries to decriminalize adult consensual sex work, which represents a huge victory for the sex workers rights movement. Longino contends that liberal toleration of pornography constitutes acceptance of the immoral treatment of women Longino Health and safety regulations need to encompass different kinds of work sites and risks, and include appropriate measures for each. Third, one can relinquish a right to x by transferring that right, as through a sale or gift. Exotic dancers, who perform in public venues, such as bars and clubs, and have limited physical contact with customers, face an intermediate level of risk. She hypothesizes that the harms caused by exposure to inegalitarian pornography range from increasing rates of sex discrimination, sexual harassment and assault to degrading the status of women. Women may be silenced, then, not by having their speech suppressed but by changes to the background conditions necessary for successful speech acts, such as refusal. Our insights, knowledges, and understanding of sex work have been largely obscured or dominated by white radical feminist, neo-Marxist or Western socialist feminist inspired analyses that have been either incapable or unwilling to address the complexities of the lives of women of color. Along with MacKinnon, she proposes that pornography should be restricted, not as a form of obscene expression, but as a product that can cause serious injuries to women, individually and as a group. It is attractive in that it places the oppression of women within social systems, rather than biology. Women on Pornography, L.
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